Non-destructive density and microstructure quality control testing in particleboards (PBs) is necessary in production lines. A pulsed air-coupled ultrasound (ACU) high-resolution normal transmission system, together with a first wave tracking algorithm, were developed to image amplitude transmission G p and velocity c p distributions at 120 kHz for PBs of specific nominal densities and five particle geometries, which were then correlated to X-ray in-plane density images ? s. Test PBs with a homogeneous vertical density profile were manufactured in a laboratory environment and conditioned in a standard climate (T = 20 °C, RH = 65%) before the measurements. Continuous trends (R 2 > 0.97) were obtained by matching the lateral resolution of X-ray images with the ACU sound field radius View the MathML source(swo=21mm) and by clustering the scatter plots. ?s ? cp was described with a three-parameter non-linear model for each particle geometry, allowing for ACU density prediction with 3% uncertainty and PB testing according to EN312. ?s ? Gp was modeled by calculating ACU coupling gain and by fitting inverse power laws with offset of ?s and cp to material attenuation, which scaled with particle volume. Gp and cp variations with the frequency were examined, showing thickness resonances and scattering attenuation. The combination of ACU and X-ray data enabled successful particle geometry classification. The observed trends were interpreted in terms of multi-scale porosity and grain scattering with finite-difference time-domain simulations, which modeled arbitrarily complex stiffness and density distributions. The proposed method allows for non-contact determination of relations between acoustic properties and in-plane density distribution in plate materials. In future work, commercial PBs with non-uniform vertical density profiles should be investigated.