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Visual Speech, a Trajectory in Viseme Space

G. A. Kalberer, P. Mueller and L. Van Gool
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology
Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 74-84, June 2003


Efficient, realistic face animation is still a challenge. A system is proposed that yields realistic animations for speech. It starts from real 3D face dynamics, observed at frame rate for thousands of points on the faces of speaking actors. When asked to animate a face it replicates the visemes that it has learned, and adds the necessary coarticulation effects. The speech animation could be based on as few as 16 modes, extracted through independent component analysis from the observed face dynamics. Rather than animating via verbatim copying the deformation fields that come with the different visemes are adapted to the shape of the given face. By localizing the face to be animated in a face space, where also the locations of the example faces are known, visemes are adapted automatically according to the relative distance with respect to these examples.

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  author = {G. A. Kalberer and P. Mueller and L. Van Gool},
  title = {Visual Speech, a Trajectory in Viseme Space},
  journal = {International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology},
  year = {2003},
  month = {June},
  pages = {74-84},
  volume = {13},
  number = {1},
  keywords = {computer animation, speech, viseme space, ica, realism, physiognomy, face space}