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Real-time synthesis of bleeding for virtual hysteroscopy

J. Zátonyi, R. Paget, G. Székely, M. Grassi and M. Bajka
Medical Image Analysis
Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 255-266, June 2005


In this paper we present a method for simulating bleeding in a virtual reality hysteroscopic simulator for surgical training. The simulated bleeding is required to be visually appealing while at the same time instantaneously responsive to any feedback that the surgeon may be conducing to the virtual environment. In order to meet these real-time requirements, we have based the simulation on graphical fluid solvers. These solvers primarily work best over a 2D domain. For correct visualization in the hysteroscopic simulator, it is, however, necessary to perform the simulation fully in 3D. Therefore in this paper we also present the design modifications for 3D graphical fluid solving and show how to use parallelization to maintain real-time behavior. We also discuss how the incorporation of massless particles into the simulation can improve the visual quality of the results by limiting numerical dissipation effects.

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  author = {J. Zátonyi and R. Paget and G. Székely and M. Grassi and M. Bajka},
  title = {Real-time synthesis of bleeding for virtual hysteroscopy},
  journal = {Medical Image Analysis},
  year = {2005},
  month = {June},
  pages = {255-266},
  volume = {9},
  number = {3},
  keywords = {surgical simulation, virtual reality, flow simulation, hysteroscopy, bleeding}