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Virtual Reality Supported Simulators for Training in Minimally Invasive Surgery

C. Basdogan, M. Sedef, M. Harders, S. Wesarg
IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
2007, in press


Simulation-based training using Virtual Reality (VR) techniques has been suggested as an alternative to the traditional training in Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS). Surgical simulators developed for this purpose enable the trainee to touch, feel, and manipulate virtual tissues and organs through the same surgical tool handles used in actual MIS, while displaying high-quality images of their deformations on a computer monitor as in real surgery. There are five major steps involved in the development of a VR-based surgical simulator: 1) construction of 3D anatomical models of organs from 2D medical images, 2) development of physics-based models of organs based on measured material properties, 3) visual and haptic rendering of surgical tool-soft organ interactions, 4) integration of hardware and software components to achieve a complete system, and 5) the development of metrics for skill assessment, simulator validation, and training transfer. In this paper, we discuss each of these steps in detail and review the current technical literature and the commercial products available in the market.

  author = {C. Basdogan and M. Sedef and M. Harders and S. Wesarg},
  title = {Virtual Reality Supported Simulators for Training in Minimally Invasive Surgery},
  journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
  year = {2007},
  month = {},
  pages = {},
  volume = {},
  number = {},
  keywords = {},
  note = {in press}