In the construction of 3D models of archaeological sites, much more emphasis has been put on the creation of the 3D shapes than on their textures. Nevertheless, the overall visual impression will often depend more on these textures than on the precision of the underlying geometry. The paper proposes a hierarchical texture modeling and synthesis technique to simulate the intricate appearances of building materials and landscapes. A macrotexture or "label map" prescribes the layout of microtextures or "subtextures". The system takes example images, e.g. of a certain vegetation landscape, as input and generates the corresponding composite texture models. From such model, arbitrary amounts of similar, non-repetitive texture can be generated (i.e. without verbatim copying). The creation of the composite texture models follows a kind of bootstrap procedure, where simple texture features help to generate the label map and then more complicated texture descriptions are called on for the subtextures.